Mini-review on Chromatography of Proteomics
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, , Port Said University , Egypt
2 Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy , Zagazig University , Egypt
3 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy , Zagazig University , Egypt
Glob J Chem Sci
Article Type : Short Review
Mini-Review; Chromatography; Proteomics; Erythropoietin Hormone; Carbetocin.
Erythropoietin hormone [12,13] has a molecular formula of C815H1317N233O241S5 and molecular weight of 30400 Dalton. Erythropoietin is a 165-amino acid erythropoiesis-stimulating glycoprotein manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. Erythropoietin is a glycosylated protein hormone and a hematopoietic growth factor. It is secreted primarily by the kidneys. It regulates erythropoiesis by stimulating the release of reticulocytes into the circulation and the synthesis of hemoglobin. The release of erythropoietin is promoted by hypoxia or anemia. Erythropoietin is used in the treatment of symptomatic anemia associated with chronic renal failure in adult and pediatric patients. Several papers described the peptide mapping of erythropoietin hormone [14-16]. Carbetocin (CBT) [12,13] is another polypeptide that has the molecular formula of C45H69N11O12S and molecular weight of 988.17 g/mol. Its IUPAC name is(2S)-N-[(2S)-1-[(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)amino]-4-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]-1-[(3R,6S,9S,12S,15S)-6-(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)-9-(3-amino-3-oxopropyl)-12-[(2S)-butan-2-yl]-15-[(4methoxyphenyl)methyl]-5,8,11,14,17-pentaoxo-1-thia-4,7,10,13,16-pentazacycloicosane-3-carbonyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxamide (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Carbetocin chemical structure.
CBT is a white fluffy powder. It has low water solubility of about 0.03mg/mL and pKa value of 11.4.CBT is a synthetic oligo-peptide containing a sequence of eight amino acids joined by peptide bonds. CBT is an analogue of oxytocin (OXT) with a longer duration of action. OXT is a cyclic nonapeptide (9 amino acids) having the structure of the hormone produced by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland that stimulates contraction of the uterus and milk ejection in mammals amino acids sequences are shown in (Figure 2). CBT binds to oxytocin receptors that are present on the uterine smooth muscles, resulting in rhythmic uterine contractions, increased frequency of existing contractions, and increased uterine tone. The oxytocin receptor content of the uterus is low in the non-pregnant state, and increases during pregnancy, reaching a peak at the time of delivery. CBT is used for the prevention of uterine a tony and excessive bleeding after caesarean section under anesthesia. CBT dose is a single 100 µg injection that can be given by slow intravenous injection reviewing literature revealed liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of CBT in presence of its impurities using phosphate buffer and ACN as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.2 mL/min . Column temperature was set at 60? and the detection wavelength was set at 220 nm. Another method was reported using ethanol instead of ACN as greener mobile phase modifier .
Figure 2: Carbetocin (A) and Oxytocin (B) amino acids sequence.
*Corresponding Author: Mahmoud M. Sebaiy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Egypt.
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