Online First

2021 : Volume 1, Issue 2

Post-Traumatic Supra and Infra Tentorial Epidural Hematoma. A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Author(s) : Yakhya Cisse 1 , El Hadji Cheikh Ndiaye Sy 1 , Nzisabira JM 1 , Moustapha NM 1 , Donzo A 1 , Kebe A 1 , Mbaye M 1 , Mbaye Thioub 1 , Alioune Badara Thiam 1 and Momar Codé Ba 1

1 Neurosurgery Department , Fann University Hospital Center , Senegal

Mod J Med Biol

Article Type : Case Reports


Background and Importance: Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a rare complication of cranioencephalic trauma. It accounts for 1 to 4% [1,2]. Supra- and infra-tentorial EDH is unusual and accounts for 2-10% of all acute EDH. It is a rare pathology and very few articles have been published on the subject [3]. Infra-tentorial EDH has a natural course of rapid deterioration and sudden death. We report our experience of the management of a supra- and infra-tentorial epidural hematoma, this case will be presented with a review of the literature.

Case Presentation: The patient was admitted to the neurosurgical emergency room for a rapidly progressive alteration of consciousness after a fall. The physical examination revealed a Glasgow score of 8/15, the pupils were of intermediate size and reactive, and the cerebral computed tomography revealed an extradural hematoma above and below the tentorial. The patient benefited from an evacuation of the hematoma and the postoperative course was simple.

Conclusion: Supra- and infra-tentorial epidural hematoma is an emergency in neurosurgery. This location is rare and has no specific clinical signs. Treatment consists of emergency evacuation of the haematoma

Keywords: Epidural Hematoma; Supra and Extra Tentorial; Cranioencephalic Trauma


Epidural hematoma is a serious complication of cranioencephalic trauma accounting for 1 to 4% [1,2]. The associated supra- and infra- tentorial location is unusual as it accounts for only 2-10% of all acute EDH [3]. Very few articles have been published on the subject. The circumstances of onset are essentially traumas, notably by public road accident or by fall. The clinical signs make it possible to identify the site of the hematoma, essentially at the supra tentorial level. There are no specific signs of EDH of the posterior cerebral fossa, the patient may be asymptomatic in the acute phase. However, signs of spinal cord compression may appear but are late for effective treatment [4]. An occipital fracture is associated in 84% of HEDs and of these 39% have parenchymal lesions [4]. Cerebral CT has made the diagnosis easy, emergency surgical management and improved the prognosis of these patients [5,6]. In this article, we report a rare case of an extradural supra and infra tentorial epidural hematoma, managed at the Fann University Hospital in Dakar followed by a review of the literature.

Presentation of the Case

This is a 23 year old male patient admitted to the neurosurgical emergency room for rapidly progressive altered consciousness following a fall that occurred 48 hours earlier, the circumstances and mechanism of which are not clear. He was found on the ground. The physical examination revealed a hemodynamically and respiratorily stable patient, the Glasgow score was 8/15 (E2 V1 M5), the pupils were of intermediate size, symmetrical and photoreactive, and the reflexes were normal. The rest of the examination was unremarkable. The brain CT scan showed a 22 mm thick subacute left parieto-occipital epidural hematoma with an 8 mm subfalcoral involvement associated with an epidural hematoma of the right posterior cerebral fossa. There was a fracture of the right parietal bone and the greater wing of the sphenoid (Figure 1). The biological work- up showed a hyperleukocytosis of 13.10³/mm³, a slightly increased reactive protein chain of 11 mg/l. The ionogram and renal function were normal. An indication for evacuation of the hematoma was taken urgently.



Figure 1: CT scan in sagittal reconstruction showing a supra and infra-tentorial epidural hematoma.

The    patient under    general anaesthesia and orotracheal intubation was placed in the prone position with the head fixed on a Mayfield headrest. A left parieto-occipital lower hinge incision was made. We made a left parieto-occipital flap without going too far down, which allowed us to visualize the epidural hematoma. We proceeded to evacuate it by aspiration by reclining the supratentorial and subtentorial elements with a malleable blade (Figure 2). A dural suspension was performed and then a closure after repositioning the flap. The patient was immediately transferred to the intensive care unit. The postoperative course was normal with a return of consciousness (GCS: 15). The evolution was favourable and the patient was discharged after 20 days. Postoperative follow-up revealed no particularities. He was seen again in consultation 4 months later. The neurological examination was unremarkable. The follow-up CT scan showed a disappearance of the hematoma and the craniotomy area (Figure 3).


Figure 2: Intraoperative iconography showing the epidural hematoma on the left; on the right we can see reclining of the dura mater to access the infra-tentorial hematoma.