Infectious diseases are observed to have their own seasonal window of occurrence and variations which differ with geographical location. Climate is well acknowledged to influence infectious disease outbreaks via changes in the pathogen, reservoir, and vector dynamics as well as influencing human behavior. This review looks into the ecology, transmission, and seasonal patterns of Buruli ulcer disease and its causative organism Mycobacterium ulcerans. The transmission of Buruli ulcer/M. ulcerans is via an environmental reservoir found in either the abiotic or biotic component of aquatic and or terrestrial ecosystems. However, there exist multiple transmission pathways dependent on the epidemiological settings and geographical areas. Rainfall patterns especially rainy seasons and periods right after the major raining seasons are known to influence the occurrence of Mycobacterium ulcerans in the environment and its infection among the human and animal populace. As such community case search activities ought to be done during the period between the rainy season and dry season. In addition, individuals in endemic communities must ensure maximum protective measures during the rainy seasons.
Keywords: Ecology; Transmission; Buruli ulcer; Mycobacterium ulcerans; Climate; Rainfall