3D Printing of Biomaterials

3D printing is the method of creating three- dimensional structure of biomaterials by means of computer control. With respect to the nano-scale dimensions the biomaterials are classified into three type’s as- Nano-particle (3D), Nano-fiber (2D) and Nano-sheet (1D). 3D bioprinting is the process of huge cell patterns by using printing techniques along with the layer-by-layer method to produce tissue mimetic structures without any harm in cell function that can be further used in tissue engineering. Electro spinning technology defines deposition of polymer nanofibers on an object by using huge voltage to a liquid polymer solution. Bioprinting helps in the analysis of drugs and pills by printing tissues and organs. It is also used for small devices and microarrays. The applications of 3D printing within the field of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are limited by the variability of biomaterials which will be utilized in this technology. Various researchers have developed novel biomaterials and compositions to enable their use in 3D printing methods. In this review, recently-developed biomaterials for various tissues are discussed. Biomaterials utilized in 3D printing are categorized into ceramics, polymers, and composites. Due to the character of 3D printing methods, most of the ceramics are combined with polymers to reinforce their printability. With the event of technology, tissue engineering (TE) has been widely applied within the medical field. In this review, we have compared several types of AM techniques and summarized their advantages and limitations. The range of printable materials utilized in craniofacial and dental tissue includes all the biomaterials. Among differing types of 3D printing techniques, extrusion-based and inkjet-based 3D printing methods are commonly used for bioprinting. Two sorts of constructs are 3D printed for TE and RM: acellular scaffolds which contain biological components, and cell-laden scaffolds for tissue mimicry. In the mini-tissue fabrication approach, the littlest structural and functional units of a tissue are assembled into a bigger tissue/organ. For fabricating a posh multifunctional tissue, a mixture of of these three approaches is required. In the inkjet printing method, biological materials are selectively placed onto the build platform during a layer-by-layer manner until the specified construct is made. The droplets are formed either by piezoelectric or thermal actuation. In piezoelectric drop genesis, voltage pulses persuade the pressure change causing to drop genesis whereas, in thermal actuation, a substance annihilates vaporizes the biomaterial and deposits a drop. Inkjet printers are known for his or her high speed, precision, and wider biomaterial availability. Due to the high controllability of droplet size and deposition rate these printers have the ability to print constructs with high resolution and accuracy. Modern 3D printing machines allow fabricating complex multicellular tissue/organ thanks to their ability to use multiple print heads loaded with different cell lines.

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