Nanotechnology has considerable potential in the field of surgery that anesthesiologists should be aware of, though it has yet to be fully realized. While there are many products and techniques in various stages of development, few have yet to make it onto the general market. As the technology to look at things on a nanoscale improved, outcome of varied procedures and surgeries is additionally improved. The use of anti-infective material like nanosilver could prove very beneficial, especially given the increasingly prevalent problem of hospital-acquired infections. Nanosilver doesn't appear to be toxic and bacteria aren't known to become resistant against it. Miniaturization has been the buzzword that brought about a revolution in science and technology and as a consequence in the way we live. By shrinking into tiny little chips, whole rooms full of electrical devices, miniaturization has for example, resized powerful computers into palmtops. Recently, there has even been mention miniaturizing laboratories into tiny chips, which scientists lovingly ask because the lab-on a-chip. Now, the group led by Adela Ben-Yakar at the University of Texas at Austin (USA), along with researches from University of Michigan (USA) and University of Queensland (Australia), have shown that an entire surgery room, except the surgeons, can be put inside a chip a few tens of micrometers in dimension and it can be put inside a chip a few tens of micrometers in dimension and it can successfully perform neurosurgery. Nano-robots which will function as tiny surgeons remain the realm of fantasy . There is research being conducted into various types of computer and robot assisted surgery and virtual reality interfaces. Surgical nano robots might be introduced into the body through the system or at the ends of catheters into various vessels and other cavities within the body. A surgical nanorobot, programmed or guided by a person's surgeon, could act as a semi-autonomous on site surgeon inside the body. Cardiac diseases are the major cause of mortality, and morbidity in human beings. Ever more people are having various cardiac problems includingarrhythmias, ischemic heart condition , myocardial infarct , atherosclerosis, and restenosis. Oral and systemic administration of drugs does not provide appropriate therapeutic drug levels in the target arteries for sufficient periods of time. Even though, biomedical engineers have already succeeded in developing microscale instruments to open blocked arteries and to treat other cardiovascular diseases. Currently, nanotechnology offers a broad platform in the field of cardiovascular science by offering tools to explore the frontiers of cardiac science at the cellular level. Nanotechnology-based tools are often effectively wont to treat the cardiovascular diseases. These tools can be used in the areas of diagnosis, imaging, and tissue engineering. Nanotechnology can also help in revealing the mechanisms involved in various cardiac diseases. The use of those newly designed nanomachines can have a paradigm-shifting impact within the treatment of the dreaded cardiovascular diseases. These machines have three key elements meant for sensing, decision making, and carrying out the intended purpose.