Nanoparticles & Molecular Nanotechnology

Molecular nanotechnology may be a technology during which molecular manufacturing depends on the power to create structures to complex, atomic specification which defines mechano synthesis. The technology during which nanoscale machines assemble macroscale products atom by atom, or molecule by molecule. The combination of physical activities during which the principle explains the chemistry, nanotechnologies, and therefore the molecular machinery of life with the systems engineering principles found in recent macroscale factories. A particle is defined as alittle object that behaves as a full unit with reference to its transport and properties. Particles are further classified according to diameter. Ultrafine particles are alike as nanoparticles and in between 1 and 100 nm in size, fine particles are sized between 100 and 2,500 nanometers, and coarse particles cover a value between 2,500 and 10,000 nanometers. In general, the dimensions of a nanoparticle span the range between 1 and 100 nm. However, how a nanoparticle is viewed and is defined depends considerably on the precise application. For example, a 20-nm gold nanoparticle features a characteristic wine red color. A silver nanoparticle is yellowish gray. Platinum and palladium nanoparticles are black. Not surprisingly, the optical characteristics of nanoparticles have been used from time immemorial in sculptures and paintings even before the 4th century AD. One dimensional system, like thin film or manufactured surfaces, has been used for many years in electronics, chemistry and engineering. Production of thin films (sizes1-100 nm) or monolayer is now common place within the field of solar cells or catalysis. Carbon nanotubes are hexagonal network of carbon atoms, 1 nm in diameter and 100 nm long, as a layer of graphite rolled up into cylinder. Fullerenes are spherical cages containing from 28 to quite 100 carbon atoms, contain C60. This is a hollow ball composed of interconnected carbon pentagons and hexagons, resembling a ball.

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